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Resource Paper: Turnout for Dancers - Anatomy - Appendix and References

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Appendix of Terminology

Planes of movement:
Sagittal: The vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sides, sometimes called the Wheel Plane.

Frontal or coronal: The vertical plane that divides the body into front and back portions, sometimes called the Door Plane.

Transverse or horizontal: The horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions, sometimes called the Table Plane.

Movement terms:
Flexion: The decrease in the angle of two articulating bones, in the sagittal plane. Example: From standing position, lifting one leg to a parallel passé; this involves flexion of both the hip and the knee joints. Curving forward is flexion of the spine.

Extension: The increase in the angle of two articulating bones, in the sagittal plane; the return to neutral from the flexed position. Example: Bringing the leg from parallel passé back to standing position.

Hyperextension: Continuing of extension beyond anatomical neutral. Example: Arabesque involves hyperextension of the hip and the low back, which arches to achieve the full range of motion.

Abduction: The movement of a bone in the frontal plane away from the midline of the body. Example: Lifting the arms out to second position, or moving the leg directly side away from the body.

Adduction: The movement of a bone in the frontal plane towards from the midline of the body. Example: Lowering the arms from second position to straight down, or moving the leg from side back to neutral standing position.

Outward rotation: Also called lateral or external rotation, the movement of a bone around its own axis, away from the midline of the body. Example: Both the hip joint and the shoulder outward rotate; standing in classical first is a position of outward rotation.

Inward rotation: Also called medial or internal rotation, the movement of a bone around its own axis, towards the midline of the body. Example: Both the hip joint and the shoulder inward rotate.

Supination: This movement term is used for both the forearm (radioulnar joint) and for the foot. Movement of the forearm in which the palm is turned anteriorly, or away from the midline of the body. When standing, supination occurs as the foot rolls outwards, placing most of the weight onto the outside of the foot and raising the arch. Supination combines inversion (moving the soles of the feet medially) and adduction of the foot. Example: When the foot is "sickled" it is supinated.

Pronation: This movement term is used for both the forearm (radioulnar joint) and for the foot. Movement of the forearm in which the palm is turned posteriorly, or towards from the midline of the body. When standing, pronation occurs as the foot rolls inward, placing most of the weight onto the inside of the foot and lowering the arch. Pronation combines eversion (moving the soles of the feet laterally) and abduction of the foot. Example: When the foot is "winged" it is pronated.

Plantar flexion: Bending at the ankle joint in the sagittal plane, so that the toes move away from the front of the shinbone. Example: Dancers call this "pointing the foot." Relevé is also an example of plantar flexion.

Dorsiflexion: Bending at the ankle joint in the sagittal plane, so that the toes move towards the front of the shinbone. Example: Dancers call this "flexing the foot." When the dancer pliés, dorsiflexion at the ankle increases.


References

Calais-Germain B. Anatomy of Movement. Seattle, WA: Eastland Press, Inc., 1993.

Clarkson PM, Skrinar M. Science of Dance Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 1988.

Clippinger K. Dance Anatomy and Kinesiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 2007.

Fitt SS. Dance Kinesiology (2nd ed). NY: Schirmer Books, 1996.

Grossman G, Krasnow D, Welsh TM. Effective use of turnout: Biomechanical, neuromuscular, and behavioral considerations. J Dance Educ. 2005;5(1):15-27.

Hoppenfeld S. Physical Examination of the Spine and Extremities. East Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1976.

Krasnow D, Deveau J. Conditioning with Imagery for Dancers. Toronto, ON: Thompson Educational Publishers, 2010.

Moore KL. Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkins, 1984.

Ryan AJ, Stephens RE. Dance Medicine: A Comprehensive Guide. Chicago, IL: Pluribus Press, 1987.

Shell CG (ed). The Dancer as Athlete: the 1984 Olympic Scientific Congress Proceedings Volume 8. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1984.

Wadler G (ed). The Healthy Dancer: ABT Guidelines for Dancer Health. New York, NY: ABT Foundation, 2008.


This Resource Paper was written by Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D. and Donna Krasnow, M.S., under the auspices of the Education and Media Committees of IADMS.

This paper is dedicated to the memory of Marjorie Moore, Ph.D.

Acknowledgments

Appendix of terminology taken from Conditioning with Imagery for Dancers, by Donna Krasnow and Jordana Deveau, used courtesy of Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.

All drawings by Jake Pett, B.F.A., and Stuart Pett, M.D.
Figure 9 has been derived from Dance Anatomy and Kinesiology, by Karen Clippinger, with permission from Human Kinetics Publishers.

This paper may be reproduced in its entirety for educational purposes, provided acknowledgement is given to the "International Association for Dance Medicine and Science."

Copyright © 2011 IADMS, Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D., and Donna Krasnow, M.S.

About the authors:
Virginia Wilmerding is at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
Donna Krasnow is at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and California State University, Northridge, California, USA.



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