|Resource Paper: Turnout for Dancers - Supplemental Training - Appendix and References|
Appendix of terminology
Anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS): The two bones that protrude on the front of the pelvis
Gluteus medius and minimus: Muscles on the side of the pelvis that internally rotate the femur; note that when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees or more, the gluteus medius will contribute to external rotation
Hamstrings: Muscles down the back of the thigh that extend the hip joint and bend the knee
Hip adductors: Inner thigh muscles
Lumbar multifidi: Small muscles close to the spine in the low back area
Neuromotor or neuromuscular: the effects of nerve impulses on muscles, that is, how the muscles receive messages from the brain and the central nervous system; in the context of this paper, "neural patterning” refers to the learned, habitual patterns that underlie our motor behavior and organize groups of muscles to act together
Oblique abdominals: Muscles on the side of the trunk responsible for rotation and curving of the spine
Psoas: A deep muscle connecting the lumbar spine to the inner leg, important in alignment of the pelvis
Rectus abdominis: Large muscle down the front of the trunk that curves the spine
Rectus femoris: The muscle on the front of the thigh that crosses the hip and the knee
Sitz bones: Also called ”sit bones,” these are bones at the bottom of the pelvis, the ischial tuberosities
Tensor fascia latae: The muscle that is on the diagonal aspect of the hip joint and helps to hold the leg up in à la seconde
Transverse abdominis: The deepest abdominal muscle, located on both sides of the lumbar spine
This Resource Paper was written by Donna Krasnow, M.S. and Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D., under the auspices of the Education and Media Committees of IADMS.
The majority of exercises described in this article are taken from the C-I Training™ DVDs by Donna Krasnow. Excerpts from the article Effective use of turnout: Biomechanical, neuromuscular, and behavioral considerations by Gayanne Grossman, Donna Krasnow, and Tom Welsh have been used, first published in the Journal of Dance Education.
Photos by Gary Ray Rush, from Conditioning with Imagery for Dancers, by Donna Krasnow and Jordana Deveau, used courtesy of Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
Thank you to the dancers: Chad Clark, Jordana Deveau, Ellis Martin-Wylie, Belinda McGuire, Natasha Poon Woo, and Meredith Thompson.
This paper may be reproduced in its entirety for educational purposes, provided acknowledgement is given to the "International Association for Dance Medicine and Science."
Copyright © 2011 IADMS, Donna Krasnow, M.S. and Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D.
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