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Resource Paper: Turnout for Dancers - Supplemental Training - Appendix and References

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Appendix of terminology

Anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS): The two bones that protrude on the front of the pelvis

Gluteus medius and minimus: Muscles on the side of the pelvis that internally rotate the femur; note that when the hip is flexed to 90 degrees or more, the gluteus medius will contribute to external rotation

Hamstrings: Muscles down the back of the thigh that extend the hip joint and bend the knee

Hip adductors: Inner thigh muscles

Lumbar multifidi: Small muscles close to the spine in the low back area

Neuromotor or neuromuscular: the effects of nerve impulses on muscles, that is, how the muscles receive messages from the brain and the central nervous system; in the context of this paper, "neural patterning” refers to the learned, habitual patterns that underlie our motor behavior and organize groups of muscles to act together

Oblique abdominals: Muscles on the side of the trunk responsible for rotation and curving of the spine

Psoas: A deep muscle connecting the lumbar spine to the inner leg, important in alignment of the pelvis

Rectus abdominis: Large muscle down the front of the trunk that curves the spine

Rectus femoris: The muscle on the front of the thigh that crosses the hip and the knee

Sitz bones: Also called ”sit bones,” these are bones at the bottom of the pelvis, the ischial tuberosities

Tensor fascia latae: The muscle that is on the diagonal aspect of the hip joint and helps to hold the leg up in à la seconde

Transverse abdominis: The deepest abdominal muscle, located on both sides of the lumbar spine


References

  1. Alexander FM. The Use of the Self. Long Beach, CA: Centerline Press, 1985.
  2. Alter MJ. Science of Stretching. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 1988.
  3. Bartenieff I, Lewis D. Body Movement: Coping with the Environment. New York: Gordon and Breach, Science Publishers, 1980.
  4. Calais-Germain B. Anatomy of Movement. Seattle: Eastland Press, Inc., 1993.
  5. Clarkson PM, Skrinar M. Science of Dance Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., 1988.
  6. Dowd I. Taking Root to Fly (2nd ed). North Hampton, MA: Contact Collaborations, 1996.
  7. Feldenkrais M. Awareness Through Movement. New York: Harper and Row, 1972.
  8. Grossman G, Krasnow D, Welsh TM. Effective use of turnout: biomechanical, neuromuscular, and behavioral considerations. J Dance Educ. 2005;5(1): 15-27.
  9. Krasnow DH. C-I Training: The merger of conditioning and imagery as an alternative training methodology for dance. Med Probl Perform Art. 1997; 12:3-8.
  10. Krasnow D. C-I Training (Conditioning-with-Imagery) [Video/DVD recording]. Toronto, Canada: Donna Krasnow, 1998.
  11. Krasnow D, Deveau J. Conditioning with Imagery for Dancers. Toronto, ON: Thompson Educational Publishers, 2010.
  12. Krasnow DH, Chatfield SJ, Barr S, et al. Imagery and conditioning practices for dancers. Dance Res J. 1997;29(1):43-64.
  13. Rommett Z. The Rommett Floor Barre Technique [Video recording]. New York: Zena Rommett Dance Association, 1991.
  14. Solomon R. Anatomy as a Master Image in Training Dancers [Video/DVD recording]. Santa Cruz, CA: Ruth Solomon, 1988.
  15. Solomon R. In search of more efficient dance training. In Solomon R, Minton S, Solomon J (eds): Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 1990, pp. 191-222.
  16. Stephens RE. The neuroanatomical and biomechanical basis of flexibility exercises in dance. In Solomon R, Minton S, Solomon J (eds): Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Reston, VA: American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 1990, pp. 271-292.
  17. Sweigard LE. Human Movement Potential: Its Ideokinetic Facilitation. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1974.
  18. Todd ME. The Thinking Body: A Study of Balancing Forces of Dynamic Man. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Medical Book Department of Harper & Brothers, 1937.
  19. Watkins A, Clarkson PM. Dancing Longer: Dancing Stronger. Pennington, NJ: Princeton Book Company, 1990.

This Resource Paper was written by Donna Krasnow, M.S. and Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D., under the auspices of the Education and Media Committees of IADMS.

Acknowledgments

The majority of exercises described in this article are taken from the C-I Training™ DVDs by Donna Krasnow. Excerpts from the article Effective use of turnout: Biomechanical, neuromuscular, and behavioral considerations by Gayanne Grossman, Donna Krasnow, and Tom Welsh have been used, first published in the Journal of Dance Education.

Photos by Gary Ray Rush, from Conditioning with Imagery for Dancers, by Donna Krasnow and Jordana Deveau, used courtesy of Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.

Thank you to the dancers: Chad Clark, Jordana Deveau, Ellis Martin-Wylie, Belinda McGuire, Natasha Poon Woo, and Meredith Thompson.

This paper may be reproduced in its entirety for educational purposes, provided acknowledgement is given to the "International Association for Dance Medicine and Science."

Copyright © 2011 IADMS, Donna Krasnow, M.S. and Virginia Wilmerding, Ph.D.

About the authors:
Donna Krasnow is at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada and California State University, Northridge, California, USA.
Virginia Wilmerding is at the University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.


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